Népszerű bejegyzések

2015. július 22., szerda

Europol felszámolta a számítógépes bűnözésre használt Darkode fórumot



Kép forrása: Europol


2015. július közepén a bűnöldöző szervek és hatóságok felszámolták a legjelentősebb angol nyelvű számítógépes bűnözésre specializálódott fórumot, a Darkode-ot. A hekker fórum és annak használói ellen indított nemzetközileg koordinált akcióban a világ különböző részeiből érkező nyomozók azokra a számítógépes bűnözőkre csaptak le, akik a Darkode fórumot a hekker tapasztalataik,  így malware (rosszindulatú szoftverek) és botnet (zombi gépek) ötletek eladására és cseréjére és arra használtak, hogy a következő spam vagy vírus akciójukhoz partnert találjanak.

Az akciót az FBI vezette, az Europol Európai Számítógépes Bűnözés elleni Központ (EC3) támogatásával és  20 EU-s és EU-n kívüli ország bűnöldöző szerveinek részvételével. Az FBI, valamint az EC3 részéről  Bosznia Herzegovina, Ciprus, Dánia, Finnország, Németország, Lettország, Makedónia, Románia, Szerbia , Svédország és az Egyesült Királyság bűnüldöző szervei valósították meg a fórum tényleges leállítását és hoztak intézkedéseket, melynek során 28 embert letartóztattak, 37 házkutatást végeztek és számos számítógépet és más eszközt lefoglaltak.

A számítógépes bűnözési fórum végét az jelentette, amikor azt leállították és egy bannert tettek közzé ami közölte, hogy az FBI és az EC3 valamint azok nemzetközi partnerei átvették a honlap fölött az irányítást. Ezzel szűnt meg a Darkode, a legnépszerűbb angol nyelvű hekker fórum,  amely a világ öt legtermékenyebb bűnügyi fórumjainak az egyike mely  sorrendet főleg az orosz nyelvű bűnügyi platformok dominálnak. A Darkode 250-300 aktív felhasználója egy zárt csoportot képviselt. A tagság kizárólag meghívással jött létre, miután a leendő tagot a fórum egy megbízható tagja leellenőrizte. Bár volt néhány botrány és állítólag a fórum a működése során veszélybe is került, a Darkode mégis az a hely volt amit az angol nyelvű számítógépes bűnözők használtak.  Ez a népszerű számítógépes bűnözési központ olyan termékek és szolgáltatások kereskedelmére irányult, amely rosszindulatú szoftvereket (malware) és Zero day Exploit kódokat (nulladik napi támadásra irányuló kódokat) adott el és lehetővé tette a meghekkelt szerverekhez történő hozzáférést.

Rob Wainwright az Europol igazgatója azt nyilatkozta, hogy "Ma ez a globális akció szétrombolta ezt a földalatti gazdaságot ami jelentősen felhívja a figyelmet arra hogy a privát fórumok nem nyújtanak oltalmat a bűnözők  számára és nem is elérhetetlenek a bűnöldöző szervek részéről. Tovább folytatjuk a munkát a bűnüldöző partnereinkkel annak érdekében a hogy a virtuális tér  a világ polgárai számára bűnözés mentessé váljon."

A Darkode fórum leállításával felszámolták azt a bűnöző közösséget aminek a tevékenységébe tartotott a hekkelés, a bankkártya és banki adatok ellopása, botnetek bérbeadása és az ún. DDoS (túlterheléses) támadások.

Forrás: Europol EC3

2015. július 18., szombat

Collective Redundancies in Hungary


Collective Redundancies in Hungary

 

Source of picture: menzieslaw

In Hungary employers must follow a rather strict procedure set forth by the applicable collective agreement and the Labour Code of Hungary.

When do the provisions apply?
 

The provisions apply where an employer is proposing to dismiss the number of employees specified below within a 30 day period.
 

No. of the employees to be dismissed
Size of the organization
at least 10
between 21 and 99 employees
10%
between 100 and 299 employees
at least 30
300 or more employees

The provisions only apply to dismissals and terminations by mutual consent relating to the employer’s operations. Dismissals connected to the employee’s performance or skills do not count.  The number of terminations by mutual consent, those by ordinary dismissal and terminations without notice during fixed term employment should be added together for the purposes of calculation.  

What are the requirements?

Prior to making collective redundancies, an employer must:
·         inform the appropriate representatives and the Government Agency on its intention of collective redundancies;
·         consult with the appropriate representatives;
·         inform the appropriate representatives, the employees and the Government Agency on its decision on collective redundancies.
 
 At least seven days before the consultation, the employer must provide oral and written information to the appropriate representatives about its proposed intention on collective redundancies. The written information shall include at least the reasons for the proposed redundancies, the number of employees to be made redundant divided into categories, the number of employees employed during the last six months, the period over which the redundancies will take place, the criteria to be used to select the employees to be made redundant and the conditions for eligibility for any redundancy payments other than statutory ones and their calculations.
 
Who are “appropriate representatives”?
 
Before the announcement of the collective redundancies, the employer must consult with the employee representatives of the works council.  The Labour Code provides that a works council must be elected at all companies or at all of the employer’s independent sites where the number of employees exceeds 50. If there is no works council, the employer must consult with ad hoc representatives of the employees.
 
 How shall the employer consult?
 
The employer shall consult with the representatives at lease fifteen days before taking the decision on collective redundancies. During such consultation the parties shall discuss possible ways to prevent redundancies, lessen their impact and consequences and reduce the number of employees involved. If an agreement is reached it must be put down into writing and one copy shall be sent by the employer to the Government Authority. The employer must notify each employee involved in the collective redundancies in writing 30 days before sending out the notices for dismissal. Collective redundancies will not take effect within 30 day from these employee notifications.
 
What sanctions apply if the process is not followed? 
 
Failure to comply with the Labour Code regulations can lead to unlawful employment termination. The consequences of unlawful termination apply only in case of ordinary dismissals, terminations by mutual consent or terminations without notice are excluded. If the employment is terminated unlawfully, the employer must pay lost wages (no more than 12 months’ average earnings) and compensate any harm suffered. 
If the employer fails to notify the representatives of the works council, they can turn to court for remedy.
If the employer fails to notify the Government Authority or the notification is defective or the employer provides incorrect data, the Government Authority has the right to levy fines which amounts to EUR 1700 maximum.
 
Are certain employees protected from dismissal?
 
The employer cannot dismiss an employee who is within five years of the minimum statutory retirement only if a proper justification is given.  There are employees who enjoy special protection against ordinary dismissal as listed by the Labour Code (e.g. employees unable to work due to illness, pregnant women, etc.).
 
How do I choose which employees to dismiss?
 
At least seven days before the above mentioned consultation the employer must provide oral and written information to the appropriate representatives on the criteria to be used to select the employees to be made redundant. The employer must provide clear reasons for the selection of the employees and the criteria must be submitted to the Government Agency. The employer and the employee representatives may agree on the selection criteria in the above mentioned separate consultation agreement. Unfortunately the Hungarian Labour Code does not contain any regulations on such selection criteria but it does happen many times that within a family husband and wife are also affected. Therefore in the consultation agreement the employer and employee representatives can agree that only one person shall be dismissed within a family.
 
Unfair dismissal
 
If the employer breaches the relatively strict procedural rules of collective redundancies, this may render the whole procedure unlawful.  If the employment is terminated unlawfully, the employer must pay lost wages (no more than 12 months’ average earnings) and compensate any harm suffered.
 
What will it cost?
 
Aside from statutory redundancy payments, there are no direct costs for making redundancies, although the minimum consultation and notice periods can result in significant costs. An employee is entitled to a statutory redundancy payment if his or her employment is terminated by an ordinary dismissal:
 
1 month's pay for at least 3 years of employment
2 month's pay for at least 5 years of employment
3 month's pay for at least 10 years of employment
4 month's pay for at least 15 years of employment
5 month's pay for at least 20 years of employment
6 month's pay for at least 25 years of employment.

The notice period is 30 days but may not exceed 6 months. Employees may also be entitled to receive enhanced redundancy payments under the terms of their contract or any collective agreement.
 
Is staff required to work during the consultation process?
 
The employer must release employees from work at least for half of the notice period. Such release can be allocated in two parts at the employee’s discretion.   
 
 
Can I ask employees to sign a waiver agreement?
 
Employers often enter into settlement agreements with individual employees to compromise potential or actual claims. There isn’t a requirement that the employee must be independently advised through his or her own solicitor. Claims for failure to inform and consult can be later compromised through the courts e.g. in cases when the employee was denied the possibility to consult with his or her own solicitor or in cases where the employer’s manner influenced the employee to act in accordance with his or her free will when entering into such a settlement agreement.
 
Do I need consent from a public authority?

 

No.  While the employer needs to notify the Government Agency, it does not need to obtain consent for the collective redundancies.
 
Can disgruntled employees bring claims?
 
 
Yes.  Employees can bring claims for unfair dismissal before the court.  Such claims generally need to be brought within 30 days of the employer’s dismissal  

Employee Business Protection in Hungary - Versenytilalmi klauzula, munkáltató jogos gazdasági érdekének védelme


Employee Business Protection in Hungary

 
 
 
Source of picture: lawyerslegalformsanddocuments
Summary
During employment an employee shall not conduct himself or herself in a manner which directly or indirectly would be detrimental to the legitimate economic interests of the Company unless permitted by law.  
The employment agreement can stipulate post-termination restrictions but this shall only be valid if it lasts for a maximum of two years following termination of employment and if the employee receives an adequate compensation in return.

Restrictions during employment
The Hungarian Labour Code does not define the Company’s legitimate economic interest in detail.  It does not even give a general definition for such interests because these interests are generally dependent on the Company’s business activities, the place of operation and the tasks performed.
Provision of confidential information for competitors, or establishment of a company with the same business activities that the employer pursues could be regarded as such jeopardizing the Company’s legitimate economic interests.

The Labour Code does not directly require employees to report any of their further employments to the employer; however parties are obliged to notify each other on any facts, data, circumstance that is important regarding the conclusion of the employment contract or their rights and obligations. Therefore employees shall report any further employment to the employer and such report shall include all those facts that could affect the employer’s legitimate economic interests.

Outside working hours an employee shall not conduct himself or herself in a manner which directly or indirectly would be detrimental to the legitimate economic interests of the Company, the Company’s reputation or the aim of the employment. On the basis of case law, if the employee outside working hours wearing he Company uniform acts in an anti-social behaviour and conducts disorders it could be  regarded as a behaviour jeopardizing the Company’s reputation.   
Not only the employment agreement but also the so called code of ethics can include regulations on the restriction of the employees’ behaviour during and outside working hours. Such restrictions are only valid if they are necessary for a reason directly relating to employment and if they are proportionate for achieving the objective. If the employment agreement of directors or executives generally prohibits freedom of expression (e.g. if the employee is generally denied public participation) it could be regarded as a clause against the law if the necessity for a reason directly relating to employment is missing. Such general clauses could only be acceptable in case of executives of big firms where political expressions although not directly relating to the Company’s activity but could influence the Company’s market position.

Employees are required to keep business secrets confidential and they shall not disclose any confidential information to unauthorized persons unless permitted by law.
Restrictions after employment

Post-termination restrictions can be agreed upon in the employment agreement itself or later on when the employment terminates.
Employees are required to keep business secrets confidential by law even after termination of employment regardless the way of termination (be it mutual agreement or dismissal) and parties are not required to stipulate post-termination restrictions either for such an obligation. In accordance with Hungarian case law, a post-termination restriction stipulated only for non-disclosure of business secrets in return for additional fee shall be void.

If the law does not require the employee to protect the employer’s legitimate economic interests after employment, such obligation can only be valid if parties agree on post-termination restrictions. The Labour Code does not regulate the types of such restrictions in detail. Generally parties stipulate non-compete clauses that seeks to prevent the employee from working for a competitor, or setting up in competition. Further, it is relatively common to include a restriction preventing an employee from poaching key colleagues. Under Hungarian law the period for stipulating such clauses can be a maximum of 2 years.
Post-termination restrictions are only valid if they are adequately compensated by the employer. Adequacy depends on the level of restriction that the employee suffers when trying to find new work. If the employee has special qualifications and he can only apply for a very limited number of job offers, the compensations should be higher.  The law stipulates the minimum amount of such compensation that shall be one third of the salary the employee is entitled to during the non-compete period if the employment would not have terminated. Parties can also agree on a penalty in case of breach of non-compete clauses. If e.g. the employee established a new employment at the Company’s competitor, he must pay the penalty and therefore by payment of such penalty the Company cannot enforce the non-compete clause. 

In case of breach of post-termination restrictions, the party in breach cannot claim enforcement.  E.g if the employer failed to pay adequate compensation to the employee for such a restriction, the employee cannot be enforced to observe the restriction. If the employee is in breach, he cannot claim compensation and the employer can claim repayment of any paid parts. Further, any party can claim damages for breach of contract. 

2015. június 24., szerda

Simplified Employment in Hungary 2015 - Egyszerűsített Foglalkoztatás 2015




  „SIMPLIFIED” EMPLOYMENT IN HUNGARY
(Egyszerűsített foglalkoztatás Magyarországon, 2015) 

Kép forrása/source of  picture: http://www.graphicssimplified.com/contact-us/employment/

 What is „Simplified” Employment and what are the benefits for employers?

In case of simplified employment, parties can conclude an employment agreement for a short period of time, even for one day with less administration and payroll tax and more flexible employment rules.

If the conditions of simplified employment are met, the amount of payroll tax the employer has to pay for each day of employment per employee is
HUF 500 (EUR 1,6) for seasonal work  
HUF 1000 (EUR 3,2) for casual work,
HUF 3000 (EUR 9,6) for cinema walk-on roles.

The above fees replace the payroll taxes the employer generally has to pay in case of normal employment. By paying the above charges the employer is exempted from paying social, workforce development, healthcare and rehabilitation contributions and is further exempted from deducting personal income tax. The employee does not have to pay pension, healthcare, workforce development and medical contributions and is exempted from payment of personal income tax advance.

It is not necessary to conclude such an employment agreement in writing. Parties however can fill out a sample employment contract as stipulated by law that could exclude any possible error of law. This sample employment contract contains minimum requirements and replaces recording of working hours and written wage settlement. Parties however cannot supplement this sample with any further sections i.e they cannot stipulate a probation period.

What Types of Employment are covered?

Simplified employment covers four types of employment:

-         agricultural seasonal work,
-         touristic seasonal work,
-         cinema walk-on roles and
-         casual work.

Conditions of Simplified Employment

Length of employment

The aggregate length of simplified employment is bound by law. Employment for agricultural seasonal work or touristic seasonal work cannot exceed 120 days per calendar year. In case of casual work this time limit is 90 days.


The law sets further requirements for casual work. The fixed term employment for  casual work  cannot exceed
-         5 consecutive calendar days, and
-         15 calendar days within one calendar month, and
-         90 days per calendar year.

By contrast, seasonal work can be performed continuously. If the employee works both as a seasonal worker and a temporary worker for the same employer, the maximum length of employment cannot exceed 120 days.

Numbers of Employees Employed

The law does not set limits for seasonal work. However in case of casual work, there is a   daily limit depending on the number of employees employed full time. It is worth noting, that the employer can spread this limit unevenly in a given year.
 
If the employer does not have full time employees at all it can employ only one employee on the basis of a simplified employment contract per day, which is 365 employees on an annual basis. In this case the company can either employ one individual for 365 days, or employ 365 individuals for one day. If the company employs 365 individuals for one day the employer cannot employ further employees under a simplified employment for the rest of the year.
This limit does not apply in case of cinema walk-on roles.

If the employer employs between 1 to 5 full time employees, the employer can employ a maximum number of 2 employees under simplified contracts per day. If the employer employs between 6 to 20 full time employees, the employer can employ a maximum number of 4 employees under simplified contracts per day. In case of more than 20 full time employees, the daily number of individuals under simplified contracts cannot exceed 20% of the staff.

The Employment Relationship Starts with Notification

As mentioned above, parties can enter into a smaple employment contract stipulated by lae, This contract can be downloaded from


The legal relationship between the parties starts with the employer’s notification to the Tax Authority.  The employer has to submit the so called ’T1042E’ tax form via the internet. If the work is not performed due to any unforeseen reasons, the notification can be cancelled within two hours, in case of one day employments. If the employment is longer than one day, or it starts on the day following such notification, the notification can be cancelled on the day the notification was made, until 8 a.m. If the cancellation is submitted after the deadlines, the employer shall pay its liabilities for the cancelled day.
 
How much is the Minimum Wage in case of Simplified Employment in 2015?

In case of simplified employment the employee is entitled to 85% of the statutory minimum wage. It he employee has a secondary school certificate this amount is 87% .

It is recommended to agree on payment by the hour when concluding simplified contracts. The minimum hourly wages are follows:
-  85 % of HUF 604 Ft/hour that is 513 HUF/hour (EUR 1,6/hour)
-  for employees having secondary school certificates 87% of 702 HUF/hour, that is 611 HUF/hour (EUR 1,9/hour)


dr. Andrea Egertz